In the article you will learn what signs may indicate varicose veins of the lower extremities, the causes of the pathology, treatment and prevention at home.
WHAT IS VARICOSIS?
Varicose veins are a venous pathology based on a dysfunction of the valvular apparatus of the vessels with the formation of venous insufficiency, expansion of the lumen, congestion, accompanied by constant tissue paste.
MAIN CAUSES OF THE PATHOLOGY
Varicose veins of the legs have different causes and symptoms, which have minor gender characteristics.The main common trigger for the condition is called congenital connective tissue weakness.Second, there are hormonal changes, so women are more often diagnosed with varicose veins. Prolonged static sitting or standing plays a role, while the longer the legs, the more serious the situation. Extra pounds also cause increased pressure in the veins of the lower extremities, as well as a lack of physical activity. Smoking, pregnancy, concomitant pathologies, tight underwear, shoes, heels, anything that causes stagnation of blood circulation in the veins of the legs are risk factors for varicose veins.
SYMPTOMS AND CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS
The signs of varicose veins in women and men are not fundamentally different. This is a staged disease, the symptoms of which are correlated with the stage of development of the pathological process.
The first stage is characterized by minor clinical manifestations: the veins barely protrude from the surface of the skin, the dermis is slightly hyperemic, the heaviness of the legs begins to disturb, the evening dizziness of the legs, ankles, seizures are possible. Such symptoms of varicose veins of the legs are particularly painful for women from an aesthetic point of view. Pain is often preceded by visual signs.
In the second stage, the clinical picture takes on a typical appearance: the veins of the legs protrude clearly above the surface of the skin, are well palpated, look like knots. If the pathological process progresses, the veins of the lower extremities acquire sinuous shapes, a blue-purple tint, sometimes they turn black.
Symptoms of varicose veins of the legs of the third stage are characterized by the development of complications: trophic disorders appear, the skin resembles parchment, edema and cramps become frequent, the legs become covered with a rash, begin to itch, secondary flora joins, layers of pyoderma, dermatitis, eczema.
The fourth stage of varicose veins of the lower extremities is the most severe in terms of symptoms: the skin above the bulging veins becomes inflamed, neighboring tissues are involved, the trophic ulcers open, pain in the legs with varicose veinsis permanent, the addition of a secondary infection causes thrombosis, thrombophlebitis, emergencyhospitalization, complex treatment.
WHICH DOCTOR TO CONSULT?
A phlebologist treats pain in the legs with varicose veins, but a vascular surgeon can also perform the initial appointment. It all depends on the severity of the pathology. The phlebologist prescribes conservative treatment or refers to a vascular surgeon for consultation to resolve the problem of surgery.
Without a complete clinical and laboratory examination, it is not possible to make an accurate diagnosis. Instrumental diagnostic methods help to clarify the stage of pathology, the duration of the tests takes 10 minutes, maximum - half an hour. The result of the examination is announced by the doctor immediately, during the first appointment. The choice of an adequate therapy depends on the stage of the pathology.
The therapy of varicose veins is based on the "three pillars": drug treatment, minimally invasive techniques, conventional surgery.
In addition to the general mandatory recommendations for varicose veins: dosed and regular physical activity, minimization of static load on the legs, exercise therapy, wearing of compression stockings, use of elastic bandages - conservative therapy involves the appointmentof phlebotonics based on flavonoids, horse chestnut extract. These are systemic drugs in tablets: synthetic and based on natural ingredients.
Most often, oral administration is combined with an external treatment of the same name for varicose veins. According to doctors and patients, the combination of capsules and gel is the most effective.
Of course, one should not expect a complete cure from conservative methods, drugs are not able to restore the dilated veins, but as a preventive measure, in preparation for an operation, thethe impossibility of surgical treatment of varicose veins - these drugs ensure the suspension of the progression of the disease and relieve the symptoms.
SCLEROTHERAPY OF COMPRESSION
The essence of minimally invasive therapy for varicose veins is to inject a special sclerosing drug into the dilated vein. Using a syringe, the doctor injects a foamy solution into the vein, which fills the deformed vessel, spasing it.
The patient is put on a compression stocking, which is designed to keep the vessel in this condition. Within three days, the walls of the veins stick together, the vessel is cut off from the usual blood flow and is neglected. You have to wear compression stockings for at least a month, sometimes two. The criteria for the effectiveness of the treatment are the adhesions formed.
Compression sclerotherapy is performed if the varicose veins are not complicated by the reverse blood flow from the deep vessels to the superficial vessels via the communicating veins.If such a counter-current is present, the efficiency of the procedure tends towards zero.
Operation - has been and remains the most reliable and effective way to treat varicose veins, regardless of the presence of reverse blood flow in the veins. But here, too, it is important to consult a doctor in time, since relapses often occur in the later stages. Varicose veins are operated on with different techniques: microsurgery, radiofrequency and laser coagulation of deformed veins.
In the early stages, photocoagulation or laser removal of spider veins is effective. In the later stages, phlebectomy is indicated - complete removal of the affected veins. The operation is traumatic, there is a risk of complications, so today doctors are trying to use the less invasive technique of miniflebectomy. If the varicose veins are complicated by venous thrombosis, secondary infection, acrossectomyis performed.
WHAT CAN YOU DO WITH VARICOSIS OF THE LEGS AT HOME?
The essence of using folk remedies for the prevention and treatment of varicose veins comes down to the removal of toxins and toxins from the body with the restoration of normal blood flow. To do this, balance the diet, including cabbage, tomatoes, peppers, herbs, citrus fruits, apples, peaches, cherries, cherries, strawberries, gooseberries, gooseberries in them. daily dishes. The correct diet should be calculated: 40 ml per kilogram of weight.
In addition, they use the properties of green tomatoes, which are sliced into the area of varicose veins in the form of compresses. The effect is guaranteed by lycopene - an antioxidant in the pulp of the fruit, which improves the structure of the vascular wall, tones the veins. You can try the juice treatment: all vegetables eaten raw are suitable.
Garlic and lemon extract is effective: phytoncides dissolve cholesterol plaques, clearing the lumen of blood vessels, a natural antibiotic, which is garlic, kills pathogenic flora, and vitamin C strengthens the wallvenous, prevents the deposition of salts. Tincture is prepared simply: chop 4 unpeeled lemons, 4 large heads of garlic, put the mixture in a jar, fill it with warm boiled water, insist under the lid for three days, shake the container every day, strain, keep cold, drink a third of a glass during meals three times a day. Course - drank 12 liters of the resulting solution.
Apple cider vinegar is generally considered a source of minerals and vitamins; for varicose veins, it is taken orally morning and evening by dissolving two teaspoons of the product in a glass of water. Externally: Rub varicose veins with a vinegar swab to relieve itching and pain.
The compresses are made with honey, applying a sterile towel with the product to the area of varicose veins for a few hours under a film. Use broken cabbage leaves with vegetable oil under a bandage overnight. Course - months.
The prevention of varicose veins has two objectives: to prevent the onset of the disease and to reduce the number of relapses. For this: you cannot go to the sauna or take too hot baths, lift weights. It is recommended that you exercise a lot, excluding strength sports, control your weight and minimize the consumption of too spicy and fatty foods.
No need to wear tight clothes, socks, knee-highs, stockings with tight elastic, cross your legs while sitting. Women are encouraged to ditch high heels.
At night - take a cool foot bath, you can spray your feet with cold water in the morning. It is necessary to give up bad habits, master the point of self-massage: caress the skin of the lower extremities from the bottom up and back for 10 minutes, minimize stress, avoid overheating, colds, undergo a medical examination.
With varicose veins, it is reasonable to visit the pool, walk, take a contrast shower at home, and wear compression stockings constantly.