Varicose veins of the lower extremities are a chronic disease, which is expressed by a violation of the mechanism of blood flow through the veins. Due to this, the venous walls are under constant pressure, gradually thinning, nodular enlargements are formed on the veins.
As a result of stagnation of blood in the veins of the lower extremities, varicose veins develop. It is manifested by swelling of the peripheral veins of the legs and their protuberance under the skin. The veins appear sinuous and take on a bluish tint. There is severe pain in the legs.
Varicose vein disease progresses without treatment, complicated by thrombophlebitis and trophic ulcers. Treatment of varicose veins should be initiated at the first symptoms in order to prevent the development of the disease.
First of all, for the treatment of varicose veins in the legs, doctors use conservative methods. If these do not bring results, they resort to surgical treatment.
In the way of treating varicose veins on the legs, an important place is given to physiotherapy methods. The main ones are:
- Lymphatic drainage;
- Hyperbaric oxygenation;
- Exposure to ultraviolet light;
- UHF and others.
The most popular procedure is darsonvalization. It is carried out with a special device that generates weak electric shocks. Move it up and down the legs for 15 minutes for each limb. The duration of treatment for varicose veins is about 20 sessions (depending on the degree of development of the disease). As a result, vascular tone returns to normal, lymphatic flow and microcirculation in the legs improve.
Pulsed magnetotherapy is performed using a generator of magnetic fields, which induce eddy currents in the tissues of the lower limbs, which have a therapeutic effect. As a result of this effect, the muscle fibers of the vascular walls of the legs are stimulated and toned. This improves blood circulation in the extremities, reduces swelling, and reduces pain. Depending on the degree of development of varicose veins, the session lasts 10 to 20 minutes.
The pneumatic compression also helps restore the tone of the veins and blood vessels through a kind of massage. A boot-like device is placed on the patient's leg. It is pressurized by the gas supply. However, the method should be ruled out for patients with varicose veins that tend to thrombosis.
Balneotherapy is an effective method of treating varicose veins in the leg, which involves bathing with mineral water. The baths themselves are named local or general. Hydrotherapy is a contrasting local bath. These methods are especially effective in the early stages of the disease. Manifestations of varicose veins to treat these methods at this stage are quite effective.
In addition to local physiotherapy procedures, others are also performed which affect the whole body as a whole. For example, the oxygen in the bubble bath improves blood circulation, relieving the symptoms of varicose veins in the legs. Hyperbaric oxygenation is helpful. During the session, the patient inhales pure oxygen at a pressure of more than one and a half atmospheres.
Ozone therapy is related to this method. Inhalation of ozone activates many processes in the patient's body: microcirculation improves, metabolism normalizes, and regeneration is accelerated. In therapeutic doses, ozone also prevents the formation of thrombi, slightly thins the blood. The course of treatment for varicose veins with ozone is 5-10 procedures with an interval of 2 days between them.
Physiotherapy is particularly effective in the early and middle stages of the disease. Physiotherapeutic procedures should be prescribed by a phlebologist.
Medications to overcome varicose veins on the legs are of secondary importance. They are the key to successful and highly effective treatment of the main method. Medicines are prescribed during physiotherapy and other methods of conservative treatment, and after surgery.
There are many drugs available for the treatment of varicose veins. They can be used in combination or separately. A phlebologist should appoint a suitable one. All drugs can be divided into several groups:
- Anti coagulants;
Phlebotonics allow you to increase the tone of the walls of blood vessels and veins, and are therefore effective in treating varicose veins in the leg. The walls become stronger and denser. The effect of treatment by other methods is fixed. Blood circulation in the legs improves, lymphatic flow improves. They are prescribed for preparation for surgery and as rehabilitation after surgery, relief of inflammation in the vein with varicose veins.
Anticoagulants are drugs that work to reduce the ability of the blood to clot. This prevents the formation of blood clots, which is of great importance for varicose veins in the leg. They can be taken as pills or injections. Taking them without consulting a doctor is dangerous, because they have a side effect - bleeding that is difficult to stop.
Decongestants can be taken orally in pill form or externally in the form of gels and ointments. In the form of tablets, diuretics are mainly used. Such drugs significantly reduce pain in the legs with varicose veins, as well as additional pressure on the walls of the veins. Their use improves blood circulation.
Disintegrants - drugs that also affect blood clotting, however, do not belong to anticoagulants. They only stop the coagulation process at the earliest stages and therefore do not belong to anticoagulants. They have no significant effect on the indicators of general coagulation. When used as an additional therapy for varicose veins, they have the same effect as blood thinners.
Antioxidants work by detoxification. As a result of the restoration of chemical bonds in cells, the tone of the walls of blood vessels and veins is strengthened. As a result, the healing of varicose veins in the leg is much faster.
Fibrinolytics prevent blood clots. This is due to the destruction of fibrin, which is part of the blood clot. Using a drug from this group allows blood plasminogen (an inactive protein) to take the form of plasmin, which causes a blood clot to break down. However, taking this medication does not prevent the continuation of thrombosis with varicose veins.
The pharmaceutical company has developed a whole series of drugs that combine the properties of several groups described. These drugs should be prescribed by a doctor and taken strictly under his supervision. This is due to the fact that they have quite a few side effects.
The use of drugs for varicose veins on the legs cannot be the only measure. They are prescribed in combination with other treatments.
It is an effective way to treat varicose veins in the legs. The principle of operation of the laser in this disease lies in its effect on hemoglobin. Hemoglobin absorbs laser light and heat is generated in the blood. As a result, the damaged vessel is "sealed". The laser also indirectly affects the tone of the walls of blood vessels and veins, as it causes these walls to spasm. The advantage of such an impact is its precision. It only affects certain tissues, without affecting the surrounding tissues in any way.
After laser exposure, the movement of blood through the treated area will stop. The blood supply to this part of the limb will be produced by deeper veins. In the "non-functioning" part of the vessel, connective tissue forms, which will dissolve over time.
The advantage of this method to get rid of varicose veins is its minimal trauma. Patients do not feel any discomfort or pain after the procedure. In addition, there are other advantages:
- The method does not require skin incisions, unlike surgery. Thus, no scar remains afterwards. There are also no bruises after the procedure;
- The intervention is short and takes place under local anesthesia. Taking this into account, it is as safe as possible for health, unlike the surgical procedure, which is performed under general anesthesia;
- From a financial standpoint, laser treatment for varicose veins is akin to surgery. Although it seems more expensive, it should nevertheless be borne in mind that after this the patient does not need to go through a period of rehabilitation and be on sick leave for a long time, nor to spend any money. money to recover.
Many diseases can be cured with the laser. It has become a good alternative to many types of procedures. Minimal trauma, painless and effective - all this makes laser treatment preferable in many situations.
Sclerotherapy is a popular method of treating varicose veins on the legs, sometimes called physiotherapy. Essentially, special drugs are injected into the veins. The method is non-traumatic and effective, and is therefore popular. This method is sometimes comparable in its effectiveness to a laser or even surgical intervention. After such a procedure, the walls of the vessel are glued and strengthened, which helps to overcome varicose veins of the legs. And the drug is absorbed into the body.
The main advantage of the method of getting rid of the disease is the absence of scars and bruises after the procedure. It is also important that it is not too painful and that it can be performed under local anesthesia. After the procedure, the integrity of the circulatory system is not violated, since the veins are not removed. Such an intervention can be an ideal option both when it is dangerous to use surgical methods - with thrombophlebitis, periphlebitis, and in the treatment of relapses of the disease, when the veins are weak and twisted.
The method has a number of contraindications. First of all, it is about pregnancy and breastfeeding. Serious diseases of the cardiovascular system, diabetes mellitus, chronic diseases of the liver and kidneys, allergies - all this will also become a contraindication to the use of sclerotherapy, it is better to think about how to treat varicose veins of the legs differently.
If the doctor prescribes sclerotherapy, he should be informed of possible contraindications. When a patient suffers from chronic illnesses of any kind, the possibility of using sclerotherapy remains questionable.
Surgery is a traumatic and painful way to effectively treat severe varicose veins in the legs. However, only its efficiency reaches 100%. Plus, sometimes it takes a lot less time than any other. Among the minuses are large scars and scars, a long period of rehabilitation. There are several types of surgical procedures:
- Stripping involves removing a section of a vein with a thin probe. It is injected at the beginning of the vein and withdrawn at the end. In this case, the area attached to the probe turns upside down so to speak and it becomes easy to remove it;
- Phlebectomy is a traditional surgical method for treating varicose veins, which involves cutting the tissue with a scalpel. It is performed both when minimally invasive intervention is not possible, for example when large areas are affected or severe inflammation is present, and for other indications;
- Microflebectomy is considered a minimally invasive procedure. Helps to effectively treat varicose veins. By the type of execution, it is similar to the previous method, only the incisions in the skin are very small. So it's less traumatic. It can be done when the injury is not so severe and it is not necessary to remove a large part of the vein.
This method has a number of indications and contraindications. Thus, pregnant women and those who have recently given birth can not be embarrassed. After childbirth, you need to wait at least a month and a half. In the early stages of varicose veins, you should also not use this method.
Surgery is no guarantee that varicose veins will not recur on the leg. You have to pay attention to your health.
There are many methods of treating varicose veins on the legs that allow the doctor to choose the best one for each specific case. However, the more the disease is triggered, the more the radical method should be chosen. Therefore, you should not delay in contacting a doctor if you observe the first symptoms of varicose veins on your leg.