Varicose veins: causes, symptoms and treatment

Varicose veins or in ordinary people, varicose veins are an irreversible and persistent lengthening and expansion of the veins, mainly of the lower extremities, as well as the formation of certain "nodes" as a result of pathology of the venous walls or due to'a genetic defect (insufficiency of their valves).

Today, varicose veins are a very common disease. It affects one in ten men and one in three women. The more a person leads a sedentary and inactive life, the more susceptible they are to this disease.

The United States, France, United Kingdom - are the leading countries in the prevalence of varicose veins (over 30% of the population on average).

Causes of varicose veins

This utility appears with an increase in venous pressure. It is generally accepted that varicose veins are exclusively of the lower extremity, however, there are varicose veins of the esophagus, stomach, testicular veins or varicose veins of the small pelvis.

By the way, the latter is one of the reasons for a fairly common disease like hemorrhoids.

The main reasons for the development of varicose veins include:

  1. Gender: Often in representatives, varicose veins are caused by taking various hormonal drugs or being pregnant.
  2. Heredity
  3. Increased venous pressure, especially due to weight problems, sedentary lifestyle.

The above reasons contribute both to the expansion of the veins and to the disruption of the usual normal functioning of venous valves.

Stages of the disease

We can distinguish the following stages of varicose veins:

  • Initial- it is characterized by aching pains in the legs, swelling and heaviness. Prevention of disease at this stage, after all, is better suited.
  • First stage- knotty veins, spider veins, which can be seen through the skin, are also added to the above symptoms. A burning sensation in the feet and calves is often possible.
  • Second step- the number of varicose veins and asterisks increases sharply, becoming more visible. The pain becomes unbearable, the legs are strongly emptied.
  • Third step- here the skin of the legs is directly affected. It becomes cracked, lifeless and dry. In addition, it is possible to change the pigmentation and structure of the skin of the legs. The venous nodes begin to take a convex shape.

What Happens With Varicose Veins?


One of the very first symptoms of varicose veins is frequent swelling of the legs, distension and heaviness of the calves when sitting for a long time.

Also, no less characteristic of varicose veins is the reduction or disappearance of these symptoms after a night of rest or walking.

If you do not start treatment on time, the following symptoms appear - bursting pain in the calves, cramps in the calf muscles, a feeling of heat in the legs.

Also on the legs you can see red-blue vascular "stars", the saphenous veins dilate, and you can see dark blue intradermal veins.

With advanced varicose veins, thrombophlebitis (inflammation of the dilated veins with the formation of blood clots), eczema in the affected areas or trophic ulcers may develop.

To eliminate the risks of the manifestation of varicose veins, it is necessary to get rid of the main causes of its appearance and external factors: smoking, alcohol, poor diet.

Varicose veins of the lower extremities develop due to a lack of high fiber foods in the diet. It is an intestinal cleanser that removes waste, pus, toxins, and radionuclides from the body.

Forms of varicose veins

There are the following types (forms) of varicose veins of the lower extremity:

  1. Localized venous lesion with defective flow through communicative or pathological veins.
  2. Localized lesion of intradermal or subcutaneous vessels without reflux.
  3. Generalized venous involvement with defective deep vein blood circulation.
  4. Extensive lesion of the veins with defective blood flow in the communicative veins.

In addition, separately isolated, such a form as the reticular form of varicose veins. It is a kind of common varicose veins, with it there is an expansion of thin intracutaneous veins


leech for the treatment of varicose veins

When you observe the first symptoms, you should immediately contact a specialist in venous diseases - a phlebologist.

The success of treating varicose veins in the legs depends largely on when you start treatment. Naturally, the earlier you see a doctor, the lower the risk of complications.

After the first examination, the doctor will order an instrumental examination, usually a Doppler ultrasound.

Sometimes radiopaque and radionuclide methods are used, if the need arises.

With these methods, special substances are injected into the bloodstream, and then their distribution in the blood vessels is studied.

How to treat varicose veins

Varicose veins can be treated with 3 methods:

  1. Sclerotherapy.
  2. Perform surgery on varicose veins.
  3. Drug (conservative treatment).

In addition to the above methods, the complex uses medical knits and physiotherapy exercises.

Below, we'll take a closer look at each of the 3 methods.


sclerotherapy for the treatment of varicose veins

Scleropia is a painless, non-surgical and above all high-quality and effective method of treating varicose veins. It is a fairly young way of treating varicose veins compared to others.

One of the main advantages of sclerotherapy is that the treatment does not require hospitalization, that is to say it is carried out on an outpatient basis, and that it does not affect the patient's usual rhythm of life in any way. patient.

The essence of the method is that a special sclerosing drug is carefully injected into the "diseased" vein, which causes a kind of "sticking" of the veins.

After the end of the procedure, a bandage is applied, which should be worn for a week. During this time, the vein becomes invaded, after which it disappears and blood flow is restored.

Unfortunately, not all types of varicose veins can be treated with this method. If the patient needs surgery, sclerotherapy not only will not help in this case, but can also lead to a number of complications and even deterioration.

For example, there is a classification of varicose veins according to the sea, where varicose veins are divided into degrees, and this method can treat only varicose veins of the 1st degree.

As for the consequences of sclerotherapy, it is the preservation of small bruises for a short time and a slight pigmentation of the "diseased" veins.

Performed by a professional doctor, this method guarantees lasting results: dilated veins "close" and blood flow never returns through them.


Surgical treatment for varicose veins or laser surgery for varicose veins. Currently, this method is one of the main ones. First, there are a number of contraindications:

  1. During pregnancy or women who have just given birth, it is recommended to wait at least 5 weeks, since in many cases varicose veins that appeared during pregnancy go away on their own without any intervention.
  2. If you are exclusively concerned with the aesthetic aspect of the problem and there are no other symptoms (inflammation of the veins, pain).
  3. A surgical method to treat varicose veins is only indicated if others do not make sense or will not bring results.

The treatment of varicose veins by a surgical method is usually carried out on an outpatient basis, without hospitalization of the patient.

There are 3 methods of surgical treatment for varicose veins - ligation, stripping, and microflebectomy.

  • Ligature- It's a kind of ligature of varicose veins. As a rule, this method is used in combination with others, for example, it serves as an addition to stripping or phlebectomy.
  • Stripping- a surgical method for the treatment of varicose veins, in which the "diseased" vein is removed using a small thin probe.
  • Microflebectomy- the essence lies in the elimination of varicose veins by a puncture made in the skin.

Drug treatment method

Pharmacotherapy is just as important in the treatment of varicose veins. Competently selected drugs will not only help to eliminate the rather basic manifestations of varicose veins, but also reduce the risk of complications.

Most of these drugs help relieve swelling and pain syndromes, improve blood circulation, etc.

These drugs help in the following cases:

  1. Improve the function of lymphatic drainage.
  2. Increase general venous tone.
  3. Improve the microcirculation of hemorheological disorders.

It should be noted that the use of these drugs, like any other, should be carried out exclusively after a thorough examination and as prescribed by a doctor.

Treatment with folk remedies for varicose veins

In addition to traditional medicine, there are also recipes from the "folk" first aid kit:

  1. Take a few cloves of garlic and chop them finely. Note that only garlic with white pods is used! Then mix it with two tablespoons of butter. We apply the resulting oatmeal to the "sore" veins for the night, on parchment paper, secured with a tight bandage and at the end we wrap it with a warm scarf. In the morning, after the shower, we dress in something warm.
  2. An equally effective folk remedy for varicose veins is an infusion of hops. Take hop cones (be sure to dry them) and pour 1 glass of boiling water. Leave to infuse for an hour then do not hesitate to take the infusion half an hour before meals in a glass.

And remember that varicose veins are not a phrase, it is always possible and necessary to be treated, and the sooner you turn to a specialist, the easier and more effective the treatment itself.

To be in a good health!