Varicose veins are the bane of modern humanity. But often the treatment of varicose veins, the scheme of which is selected individually, is successfully completed. Sometimes the issue is only circumvented by therapy and medication, but sometimes the situation is saved only by surgery. What are the ways to get rid of this unpleasant and serious disease?
Varicose veins - basic information
Varicose veins are a pathological condition characterized by damage to the venous vessels.
There are special valves in the veins, which act as a kind of closures, preventing blood from flowing (venous blood in the legs flows from the bottom up).
Failure of the valve system results in backflow of blood and congestion.As a result of these processes, the veins weaken, stretch and deform, unable to cope with the increase in blood pressure.
The result is a symptom familiar to many bulging veins on the surface of the skin, which indicates the dynamic development of the pathology.
All the deviousness of the disease lies in the fact that at the initial stage it manifests itself in the usual fatigue and heaviness in the legs.
Therefore, many are in no hurry to see a doctor, and they are already starting to sound the alarm when blue strands become visible on the skin, spoiling the appearance of the legs.
Learn more about the symptoms of early varicose veins here.
The reasons for the development of this pathology are very diverse.These are both congenital anomalies of the vascular system and certain provoking factors: a sedentary lifestyle, excess weight, uncomfortable shoes, work activities associated with prolonged standing.
The treatment of the disease is always carried out in a comprehensive manner.The necessary scheme is selected by a specialist depending on the stage of development of the disease and the individual characteristics of the organism.
Which doctor treats the veins?
Varicose veins are not only enlarged veins, but also serious violations of valves and failure of blood circulation, which leads to serious complications throughout the body. And if the first symptoms appear - swollen veins, muscle cramps, constant heaviness in the legs - you should immediately make an appointment with a phlebologist.
Depending on the severity of the case, the causes of the disease and the medical condition, the doctor will select the most appropriate treatment from the options available today.
The main reasons that lead to varicose veins are: heredity, overweight, sedentary lifestyle, sedentary or standing work, hormonal imbalance in the body. According to statistics, 40% of adult women and 20% of men show signs of varicose veins.
A phlebologist is engaged in the diagnosis of the disease, you should contact himif such symptoms appear:
- Heaviness in the legs which worsens towards the end of the day.
- Rapid fatigue of the legs during long walks.
- Pain in the legs.
- The appearance of a fine vascular mesh on the legs.
- Swelling of the legs.
- Seizures that increase in intensity at night.
- Itchy skin on the lower limbs.
the atrophy of the muscle fibers of the superficial veinsgradually develops, the blood vessels lengthen, dilate, become tortuous, nodes appear on them protruding above the surface of theskin. The skin above the enlarged veins turns bluish red, dry and hot, ulcers appear due to nutritional disorders of the tissues.
Due to dystrophic changes in the subcutaneous fat layer, lipodermatosclerosis can develop - a dangerous complication of varicose veins in the legs, treatment of which with conservative methods may fail.
To avoid the serious consequences of varicose veins, phlebologists advise their patientsto start treatment on timeas soon as the first signs of the disease appear.
Sclerotherapy is very effective, which involves injecting a special sclerosing substance into the vessels using a syringe with the thinnest needle. The venous lumens are tightened, the edges of the ruptures are welded, thus stopping the infiltration of blood outside the vessels. The substance itself, having fulfilled its function, is absorbed.
This method removes all imperfections and gives an excellent cosmetic result. But after the procedure, it is necessary to maintain the condition of the veins with additional treatment and wear compression clothes.
Almost 10 years ago, a laser, or rather endovenous laser coagulation, began to be used with great success in medicine to combat varicose veins. Treat the veins as follows:
- Under local anesthesia, a small puncture is made in the vein.
- An optical fiber is inserted into the resulting hole.
- The laser works on damaged areas, sealing the damage.
- Then a new tissue appears at the sealed location.
The operation is not "blind" - the process is monitored by an ultrasonic device, so there is virtually no risk of failure. In addition, the absence of significant incisions excludes painful sensations, the formation of hemorrhages and a violation of adjacent tissues.
After the procedure, you should bandage the affected areas or wear compression stockings and tights.
Radiofrequency ablation is often used, and high frequency current successfully treats varicose veins. It goes as follows:
- The vein is pierced.
- A catheter is inserted into the hole.
- Radiation enters the ship through it.
- The conductor acts at the molecular level, modifying the protein molecules of the damaged vein.
The method allows you to quickly treat all venous nodes and no special postoperative treatment is required.
Methods of treating varicose veins
There are two: conservative and surgical. The patient is faced with an urgent question: how to treat varicose veins on the legs without surgery. When choosing a method, the doctor takes into account the signs, the stage of the disease, the presence of complications, concomitant diseases, the age of the patient. Nonsurgical methods of removing varicose veins from the lower extremities give good results only when the symptoms of the pathology are still weakly expressed.
To stop the degradation of affected vessels, help:
- drug treatment
- ; compression processing
- physiotherapy exercises; physiotherapy
- ; massage
- recipes of traditional medicine; Diet
Phlebologists try to choose exclusively non-drug treatments for patients during pregnancy for varicose veins of the lower limbs. First of all, these are compression underwear, gymnastic exercises, physiotherapy, massage, diet. If drugs are still needed, only drugs for external use are prescribed.
Debate continues over whether hirudotherapy helps with varicose veins. Hirudin produced by leeches, entering the venous system of the lower extremities, dilutes the thickened blood. However, today there are many modern drugs with the same property. In addition, there are risk factors for the use of leeches - vascular infection, allergic reactions.
If necessary, treatment of varicose veins is carried out by radical methods. This:
- ; ozone therapy
- ; cryotherapy
- ; electrocoagulation
- ; Laser coagulation
Sclerotherapy - injection into a diseased vein of a medicine that "sticks" to the dilated vessel. It stops pumping blood and gradually dissolves. The maximum effectiveness of sclerotherapy is achieved at an early stage of the pathology. A similar method is ozone therapy: part of this gas is injected with a syringe into the lumens of small veins, and the vessels "stick together".
Cold is used during cryotherapy procedures. During electrocoagulation, a high frequency current is supplied to the vessels by a very thin electrode. Laser treatment of varicose veins is also an effective modern method, especially when used in combination with conservative methods. At the same time, the aesthetic result is high: after a few weeks the patient no longer has scars and scars.
However, surgical removal is the most effective treatment that can radically get rid of varicose veins when drug treatment does not achieve the desired result. The diseased vessels are removed through local subcutaneous incisions. After the surgery, the leg is tightly bandaged and after three to four hours the patient can walk.
Principles of medical treatment of varicose veins
Effective treatment of varicose veins is possible only if the selected drugs prevent the mechanisms of the development of pathology, destruction of vascular walls and valves.
The main tasks of drug treatment of varicose veins are:
- restoration of blood circulation;
- strengthening of the venous walls;
- increased vascular tone;
- lowering the viscosity of blood;
- prevention of blood clots;
- standardization of the valve system;
- elimination of inflammatory processes;
- normalization of blood circulation in the capillaries.
Medicines are essential in the complex treatment of the disease.
They are also widely used for preventive purposes, which is especially important for people at risk of developing pathology.
To date, there are a large number of drugs for the treatment of varicose veins on the legs, and they all differ in composition and mechanism of action.
Consult a doctor
Varicose veins are a serious diseasewhich, if treated improperly or not, can threaten various complications dangerous to human health and life.
Help. Thromboembolism of vital vessels, thrombophlebitis, trophic ulcers - this is not a complete list of complications of varicose veins that pose a threat to humans.
In this regard, you shouldn't even try to heal yourself.
Home experiments with drug selection can either make the situation worse or ineffective.
Either way, it's wasted time, health and funds.
Therefore, you should contact a phlebologist. Only a specialist will be able to correctly select the drugs and develop the treatment regimen in such a way as to achieve the maximum benefit for the patient.
What drugs are used
The complex treatment of varicose veins consists of using several groups of drugs at once:
Also, to enhance the therapeutic effect,means of systemic and local influence are used.
Creams, gels, ointmentsare used as topical preparations. When choosing drugs for varicose veins and thrombophlebitis, it should be borne in mind that it is the agentin the form of an ointment that is characterized by the highest content of the active ingredient.
Important!A common contraindication to all local remedies is a violation of the integrity of the skin.
As a rule, these drugs are applied several times a day, and the product should be rubbed with light movements from the bottom up.
Groups of drugs and their effects
Medicinal substances in venous varicose veins are classified according to the type of action intothree main groups:
- venotonic or phlebotropic agents;
- anticoagulant agents (anticoagulants) and drugs that inhibit platelet adhesion (antiplatelet agents);
- anti-inflammatory drugs.
Research and medical practice have proven the effectiveness of phlebotonics developed from natural flavonoids- diosmin and hesperide. These substances not only protect the cells of the veins, but also stimulate lymphatic flow and stabilize the work of the capillaries. The simultaneous administration of combined drugs in which both flavonoids are present is particularly effective.
Most often, phlebotropic agentsare followed for 2 to 3 months in progress. It is important that the reception coincides with the warm season, when the load on ships increases due to high air temperature and the use of large volumes of water. If varicose veins are accompanied by chronic venous insufficiency, phlebotonics are constantly taken at half the dose.
A patient with a diagnosis of varicose veinsshould receive systematic treatment early onto prevent the development of the disease and reduce the risk of complications.
The second task is solved by drugs that thin the blood (anticoagulants) and improve its flow properties, preventing the formation of thrombotic clots (antiplatelet agents).
The formation of blood clots, their separation from the vascular wall and their movement along the venous bed cause the vessels of the human heart, lungs and brain to overlap. As a result, the likelihood of developing a heart attack, pulmonary embolism, and ischemic stroke is very high.
Antiagretates are not a cure for varicose veins, but are used as a means of preventing its serious complications- thrombosis and thrombophlebitis. We can say that these drugs save the life of the patient and minimize the threat of disability.
The removal of damaged veins of the lower extremities or their parts is carried out through incisions or perforations. Removal of diseased vessels in the clinic is necessary if:
- the veins
- in the legs are pathologically enlarged;
- the skin is affected;
- trophic ulcers have developed;
- the thrombophlebitis has worsened.
Surgical treatment of varicose veins in the legs is contraindicated:
- for severe hypertension, coronary heart disease, infectious diseases, eczema;
- if the patient has already reached an advanced age;
- during pregnancy (over 5 months).
In addition to medical and surgical treatment, further treatment is of considerable importance, including a number of measures to bring the veins back to normal:
- The wrap has a relaxing effect, eliminates the feeling of heaviness in the legs. When purchasing the necessary funds, it should be remembered that hot wraps are contraindicated for varicose veins.
- Foot baths are another way to relieve stress on your feet. Using medicinal herbs and oils, you can strengthen blood vessels, get rid of puffiness and redness. But the effect will be only with the daily use of the method.
- Shower of contrast. 10 seconds of cold watering and 30 seconds of hot water (better to avoid hot water) for 5-7 minutes each morning will help keep your veins in good shape. For these purposes, you can use the Alekseev or Charcot shower.
Often phlebologists include physiotherapy in a complex treatment - laser, magnetotherapy, electrophoresis.
They do not cause discomfort and pain, inexpensive and quite effective. In addition, the treatment takes place under the supervision of healthcare professionals. The main condition is regular visits to the office.
Physiotherapy has a beneficial effect on the condition of the venous walls, muscle tissue and valve activity.
Compression therapy is an important component not only of treatment, but also of prevention and the postoperative period. The use of bandages will prevent stagnant processes, support damaged vessels and stop the progression of the disease.
Applying bandages requires some knowledge and dexterity, as over tightening may cause deterioration, and a weak bandage will not give the desired effect. Therefore, for the correct use of bandages, it is worth consulting a doctor.
Massage for varicose veins is not allowed in all cases, so only a doctor can tell whether it is worth using it in a particular case or not. If the method is chosen correctly, you can feel the result after the first session. This method can lead to improved blood microcirculation, relieve the main symptoms of the disease, including external symptoms.
The more advanced the disease, the more difficult it is to fight it, and sometimes patients arrive too late, and there is only one way out: phlebectomy. To prevent this from happening, one should not wait for complications, but receive qualified assistance in a timely manner.
Phlebologists in the treatment of varicose veins strive to do without traumatic operations that are not necessary in the early stages of the disease. For example, this is typical of reticular varicose veins, the manifestation of which is limited only by blue venous networks. Medicines help improve the condition of valves and vessel walls. Men, like women, should wear compression stockings. The pathology cannot be completely cured. However, conservative methods stop the development of varicose veins and protect against complications.
Exercise therapy specialists know how to remove veins from the legs by performing physiotherapy exercises. This is possible provided that the exercise, which improves blood circulation in the legs, is done systematically. For example:
- While standing, the heels of the feet are alternately lifted vigorously.
- In the same standing position, they slowly rise on the toes and descend just as slowly.
- Sitting on a chair, roll a small ball on the floor with your feet back and forth.
Wear special underwear
Doctors recommend combining medical treatment for varicose veins with wearing compression underwear - these are products made from a special type of knitwear that puts pressure (compression) on the veins. The degree of pressure of the laundry on the walls of the containers can be adjusted by purchasing products with different degrees of compression.
There are four degrees of compression in total: the first is used for prophylaxis, the rest for treatment. With varicose veins of the lower extremities, tights, stockings, knee-highs and leggings, the doctor selects the required degree of compression.
Compression underwear creates a dense crush frame on the legs,thanks to this, the following effects develop:
- Weakened leg muscles are taken care of.
- The walls of the blood vessels are compressed, which prevents them from stretching.
- Lymphatic flow and blood circulation are stimulated.
- Stagnation is eliminated.
- The function of venous valves is normalized.
- The load on dilated veins is reduced.
- Thrombophlebitis is avoided.
It is mandatory to wear compression stockings after varicose vein surgery. Underwear helps prevent the recurrence of the disease, creates additional support for the body during the rehabilitation period.
Compression sclerotherapy is a modern method of treating varicose veins, which involves injecting drugs into the affected veins. As a result, sclerosis (sticking) of the venous walls occurs, the blood flow to the injection site stops, and the vein gradually dissolves or leaves behind a barely noticeable strand that does not bother the patient at all.
Most often, sclerotherapy is performed when spider veins appear, when varicose veins are in the initial stage. With the gradual development of varicose veins of the legs, sclerotherapy treatment is carried out after analyzing the condition of the venous valves and vascular walls, the functional characteristics of the patient's circulatory system.
If a decision is made to perform compression sclerotherapy, the patient undergoes a blood coagulation test and ultrasound examination of the veins. During sclerotherapy, the patient does not feel painful sensations, as the drug is injected into the vein using the thinnest needle. After the end of the procedure, a sterile bandage is applied to the drug administration area, the patient puts on a compression garment. During the first week after sclerotherapy, compression stockings should be worn 24 hours a day and then removed at night.
Positive results of sclerotherapy:
- Restoration of efficient blood flow.
- Exclusion of blood clots in the damaged vein.
- Prevention of trophic disorders in tissues.
- Elimination of clinical symptoms of varicose veins: edema, convulsions, pain.
- Excellent cosmetic effect due to the fact that the distended veins disappear completely.
For more effective treatment of varicose veins in the legs, it is important to organize nutrition correctly. Berries, apples, citrus fruits, which contain flavonoids, antioxidants, rutin, help to improve the condition of blood vessels. Dilution of the blood provides a daily supply of a sufficient amount of fluid (1. 5-2 liters). A diet with varicose veins on the legs is incompatible with fatty and fried foods, hot spices, alcohol.
Treatment of varicose veins with folk remedies at home in the summer is especially effective. The following recipes are popular:
- Compresses for thighs for 15 to 20 minutes with tomato paste. It has a high content of lycopene, which actively strengthens blood vessels and prevents the formation of blood clots. At the same time, it is useful to eat fresh tomatoes every day.
- Infusion of sweet clover, an essential herb for varicose veins: Art. l. raw materials are brewed with two glasses of boiling water, stored until cooling, filtered. They drink half a glass 3 times a day, the rest of the volume is used in the form of lotions.
What not to do
When diagnosing varicose veins, attention should be paid to lifestyle, nutrition and exercise.Not allowed:
- active physical activity, running, jumping (yoga classes are allowed);
- prolonged standing or prolonged sitting position;
- use of all medications without consulting a phlebologist;
- long flights with a forced stationary position of the legs. In addition, at high altitude, a sudden thickening of the blood occurs, which leads to the formation of blood clots;
- take hot baths, visit a sauna;
- Cupping and honey massage are strictly prohibited, only manual type of medical massage is allowed.
Trophic ulcers- a form of complication in varicose veins, which is manifested by the development and deepening of long-term non-healing ulcers. Usually, a separate painful ulcer develops on the lower part of the leg, inside which an "oozing" is often seen in the form of a discharge of serous blood fluid covering the affected tissues.
Urgent medical attention
Immediate medical attention is required if any of the following symptoms appear:
- Increased pain in affected limb, inability to get out of bed or take a few steps;
- The skin on the leg is warm, swollen and firm to the touch.
- The color of the skin changes from pale to bluish or bluish red;
- Sudden shortness of breath, shortness of breath, sweating and severe weakness;
- Bleeding from the affected skin or varicose veins.
The necessary drugs for varicose veins of the lower extremities should be included in the complex treatment regimen.Even after surgery, several courses of phlebotonic and antiplatelet agents will be necessaryin order to prevent possible trophic disturbances, inflammation and complications associated with the disease.
Many multi-component varicose veins drugs work in combination, have several functions. The effectiveness of these drugs is more pronounced.It is optimal to use courses of treatment in the correct dosage, calculated by the phlebologist, in combination with compression therapy, yoga classes, swimming in the pool, herbal medicine.
The complex treatment of varicose veins of the lower extremities involves the use of various therapeutic methods.
In addition to medication, physiotherapy, special exercises, massages, etc. are prescribed.