Varicose veins of the lower extremities – chronic pathology that is characterized by thinning inflammation of the vascular walls, increased vascular spaces and the formation of the complex extension.
The disease is diagnosed in 15-17% of the adult population. In adulthood, the disease often is diagnosed in women, which is associated with hormonal changes in the body (menopause, pregnancy, menstruation).
Large varicose veins on the legs, manifested by an extensive clinic. Patients complain of heaviness and discomfort in the legs, rapid fatigue, swelling of the ankle, cramps in the night, protruding blue veins. During the pathology on the background of the absence of adequate treatment leads to various complications.
Causes and risk factors of varicose veins of the lower extremities
Varices of the lower limbs in most paintings is the result of a genetic predisposition. Immediate cause: the functional immaturity of the valves of the veins, and the backwardness of the connective tissue element of blood vessels. This leads to an increase in the load within the blood vessels and the formation of varicose veins.
Etiology it is caused by hereditary factors, which are associated with hypercoagulability – increased coagulation of blood. On the background of the distortion to form a blood clot, which disrupts proper blood flow in the legs, which leads to a pathological enlargement of the inflammation of the gaps.
A common cause of the development of the disease in women – hormonal failure. He is based on the change in the concentration of sex hormones in the blood. It is connected with the commencement of menopause and pregnancy.
The causes of varicose veins of the legs:
- Overweight. Obesity has a mechanical effect on the venous wall, in particular, expressed it manifests itself on the background of the abdominal type. As a result, the patient increases venous pressure;
- Diabetes. Due to the complex disorder of metabolic processes, associated with persistently high blood sugar at a relative lack of insulin, a decrease in the elasticity of the inflammation of the walls with their further enlargement;
- Dependence on alcohol. In alcoholism, the body lacks fluids, the blood becomes more dense, which leads to disruption of blood circulation;
- Professional factors (a constant presence in the upright position, excessive physical load, physical inactivity);
- Wearing uncomfortable footwear such as high heels;
- Severe pathology of the cardiovascular system that manifest a failure of blood circulation.
Lead to varicose veins the legs can chronic pathology of the genital organs. In particular, inflammation of the prostate gland in men and pendants for women.
The mechanism of occurrence of disease is based on the involvement in the inflammatory process of the smallest veins, which leads to their swelling and the difficulty of blood flow.
Signs and symptoms of varicose disease
Large varicose veins on the legs manifests itself in different symptoms. Let's start with the external changes. So, the most obvious sign, a confirmation of the occurrence of the disease, the transfer of the contour and shape of the subcutaneous blood vessels of the legs. Manifested bloating, nodular thickening. The blood vessels become dark in color, taped ok and asterisk.
Trophic ulcers on the legs are treated from both sides. Part of the doctors include wounds to the symptoms, others to the complications of the pathology, shows the latest – greatest-running stage of a defective process.
Classification of varicose veins of the legs
Varicose veins on the legs more often diagnosed in adult women, than in men of this age. At the young age of the disease in boys and girls manifests with similar frequency. In accordance with the classification of the disease, becomes the primary and secondary nature. In the first case, the pathological changes relate to the superficial blood vessels. The distortions of the construction and structure of the deep vessels is missing.
Secondary varices represents a complication of diseases of the deep veins, resulting in observed negative changes in the surface blood vessels of the lower extremities. This pattern is evident on the background of congenital disorders of the venous system, and as a consequence of phlebothrombosis.
Also, the disease is classified on clinical forms. These include varices of the lateral vessels of the lower limb and hip, a reticular shape, and venous telangiectasia. Consider these forms of read more:
- Varices of the lateral vein becomes, as an independent disease, and in combination with other pathologies. Reverse casting of the vein of fluid occurs in a deep vein using subcutaneous and surrounding blood vessels.
- Mesh (reticular form) manifests itself as a separate pathology. This leads to venous insufficiency, represents only a cosmetic defect.
- Varicose telangiectasia are also cosmetic defects.
In recent years, doctors issued a venous failure idiopathic forms. It is characterized by increased venous tone, while the obvious causes of such breaches to find out. The clinical manifestations of the disease do not differ from the classic clinic.
Phase and the degree of varicose veins
Large varicose veins on the leg differ depending on the stage and extent. For the determination of vanquish in the account of the clinic in the patient. Chronic disease tends to be a few stages that have some differences:
|Compensation||Painful weakly expressed by either it not. Patients complain of leg discomfort due to prolonged standing. Notes availability for vascular mesh on the skin, regularly manifests itself in swelling of the ankle, quickly disappears after rest.|
|Subcompensation||During a visual inspection of the lower extremities of the patient visible veins with a morbid portrait. Ill have many complaints. In particular, they complain of constant pain arching character of the, increased fatigue, heaviness in the legs. Night often appear twitching of the muscles "shiver" on the back. The observed swelling, after a night of sleep in 90% of cases will disappear alone.|
|Decompensation||The most difficult stage of varicose veins. Showing changes from the side of the skin cover. It is becoming too dry, falling out hair on the legs. In addition, the taped hyperpigmentation, which leads to abnormal thickening of the subcutaneous tissue. Diverge and scratches on the feet, heals a longer period of time, they are able to could in trophic ulcers. Legs become swollen constantly, rest and sleep do not help. Swelling have a property rise above the legs.|
When a girl or guy comes to the doctor with complaints on the described symptoms, the doctor performs a visual inspection of the assigned laboratory analysis and instrumental methods of diagnosis. On the basis of the obtained results say about the shape, stage and extent of disease.
Degree varicose veins of the legs are determined by the numbers. Zero (0) – the clinic is not revealed, the external changes are absent; And – swelling, constant fatigue in the limbs; II – constant swelling, which is accompanied by the reaction of hyperpigmentation, abnormal seal subcutaneous tissue; III – the pain does not pass, the swelling of the legs, trophic ulcers.
Complications of venous insufficiency
Varicose veins – chronic incurable disease, so treatment pursues a certain goal – to suspend the progression and prevent complications. If treatment is assigned incorrectly either patient, which is turning to a medical specialist, to develop complications of the disease.
Thrombophlebitis – inflammation of the vein wall in the presence of a blood clot. In the inflammatory process may involve the surrounding blood vessels and soft tissue. Secrete several forms. It becomes acute (lasts about 30 days), subacute – length in six months and the chronic form.
Migratory thrombophlebitis rarely occurs. It is characterized by inflammation, which occurs in different places in vienna, it passes quickly.
The symptoms include:
- Visually a clear outline of the inflamed vessel.
- Acute painful during palpation, the pain becomes stronger.
- Swollen lymph nodes, protruding above the skin.
- The local increase in temperature.
Thrombophlebitis in varicose veins on the legs can lead to further complications. For example, the periphlebitis is inflammation of the surrounding tissue, moist gangrene of the extremities, thrombosis of the deep venous thrombosis. When the spread of inflammation are manifested complications, which extend beyond the extremities – thromboembolism and sepsis.
Deep vein thrombosis – a common complication of varicose veins of the legs. The pathology is characterized by the formation of a dense blood clot, which is fully or partially clogs the blood vessels that disrupts normal blood circulation. When such complication there is a risk of lethal outcome due to the separation of the precipitate.
Trophic ulcers occur in severe cases. Often joins infectious process, which worsen the clinical picture. Wounds may affect not only tissue, but also the deeper layers of the muscles. Not heal for a long time. Requires a comprehensive treatment.
Varicose eczema is characterized by these symptoms:
- Inflammatory hyperpigmentation of the skin purple or bright red color;
- Are formed microvesicles, which themselves reveal;
- Strong swelling of the legs;
- Itching of the skin, which is observed constantly;
- Crying, which after drying is covered with a crust;
- Abnormal thickening of the skin cover.
Varicose eczema can go into a chronic course, which is manifested by hardening of the skin cover and subcutaneous tissue.
When entering infection eczema complicated by trophic ulcers.
Conservative treatment of varicose veins of the legs
Conservative therapy of varicose veins involves treatment of the treatment and the wearing of compression underwear. The pressure knitted fabric with different class of compression and mission – happens for the prevention and treatment of pathology. Tights, stockings and leggings you should pick up the doctor with regard to specific properties. Just the right underwear gives the desired result.
Prescribe medications. Perfect effective drug that affected all the pathological aspects of the disease, does not exist. It is recommended the use of systemic preparations – tablets and local means – gels, balms, creams and ointments.
Additionally prescribe physiotherapy – magnetotherapy, electrophoresis; special gymnastics. You can use folk remedies – recipes from medicinal herbs, it helps to reduce the severity of symptoms.
Sometimes it is recommended hirudotherapy – treatment with leeches.
Methods of surgical treatment
When conservative ways to give a small result, the disease progresses, it is recommended to carry out the operation. Often practiced sclerotherapy. In the vein injected a special substance, which holds together the affected blood vessel. With the passage of time is replaced by connective tissue.
Ablation radiofrequency. In this operational intervention performed, "welding" the vessels (of the patient) through the probe, which sends out waves. The probe heats the walls, leading to stenosis. After the procedure, some time it is necessary to wear compression underwear.
Selection way to help the patient surgically, depends on many criteria. The doctor takes into account the stage of the disease, the health condition of the patient, presence of chronic diseases, which may become a contraindication to conducting the intervention.
Other kinds of surgical treatment:
- Phlebectomy – the doctor removes the affected veins and blood vessels. Through a small puncture of the skin by injection a tool with a hook, through which the pull of the vessel. This technique is combined – it uses a surgical procedure and the use of the laser.
- The most effective method of treatment is considered laser coagulation of the veins of the lower extremities. Technique surgery is performed with minimal incisions and injuries. Through a small puncture on the skin in the container is introduced in a thin diary, which radiates waves of a desired frequency. In the affected area there has been heating. The walls of the growth, that allows you to neutralize the problem.
Stripping is performed using a small probe that is inserted through the incision and glue the affected part of vienna. Cryostripping – type containers are liquid nitrogen, which leads to the distruction of the area, the subsequent is not functioning.
Preventive actions are of great importance. A favorable prognosis depends not only on the right of the appointment of dr. and carried out the treatment, but also from the patient – that he must change his lifestyle, clearly follow the instructions phlebologist.
So, it is necessary to constantly wear compression underwear either bandaging limbs elastic bandage. According to the assessment of patients, the first option is much more convenient. Even after operative intervention required constant physical activity, but without excessive burden for the organism.
During sleep is recommended to your feet make higher position. For this limbs have on a pillow or packed blanket. If the work associated with the continuous cost either a seating area, then every 60-80 minutes, it is necessary to do a little exercise to speed up blood circulation in the body.
Women are advised to stop wearing high-heeled shoes. Maximum heel height should be 5 see All patients need to pick up comfortable shoes, give up clothes, which puts pressure on the limbs.
Varicose veins on the legs – a serious disease that requires a comprehensive approach in the treatment of. Only a complex effect, consists of medications, compression clothing, physiotherapy, physical activity and proper nutrition will lead to a positive outcome and open to forgiveness.